Summary of the Kāśyapasaṃhitā/Garuḍapañcākṣarīkalpa

A Russell's Viper (गोनस)

 

The Kāśyapasaṃhitā, aka Garuḍapañcākṣarīkalpa, is unique in that it is the only long text to survive that is exclusively about Gāruḍa Medicine.  It is a Pāñcarātra saṃhitā, and is included in canonical lists of the 108 scriptures of the Pāñcarātra school of tantric Vaiṣṇavism.  Notably it is shameless to admit  that it is a recast of Śaiva Gāruḍa material (1.10–15).  Vaiṣṇava elements are present, but only few and far between.  Conspicuously absent are the usual mantras to Śiva in his many forms.  The text is valuable for the many details it gives about Gāruḍa mantras and ritual procedures.  I made this summary for my own research purposes, but perhaps it will be useful to others too.   My 2008 etext of the whole text can be downloaded from the Centre for Tantric Studies.

•    Chapter 1      Core mantras
•    frame dialogue
•    3–6, the various types of mantras
•    7–10, frame, attributed to Śiva
•    11–15, frame, specific location and context of Śiva teaching it to Dhara.
•    16–28, the five-syllable mantra of Garuḍa and its many uses
•    29, the teaching has specifically Vaiṣṇava elements here
•    30–31, karanyāsa on both hands
•    32–33, varying order of nyāsa for different effects
•    34–42, aṅgamantras
•    43–44, Gāruḍa gāyatrī
•    45–50, mudrā, with mantra and visualization
•    51–56?, piṇḍa mantra
•    57–63, pada mantra, aka Kūṭagāruḍam
•    64–65+mantra, mantrapāṭha
•    66–67+mantra, another mantra or mantrapāṭha continued?
•    68–end, stutimantra, several specifically Vaiṣṇava epithets used here.

•    Chapter 2     Navakoṣṭhadhyāna
•    1–2, constructing the 9 koṣṭhas as a Māhendra maṇḍala, god (Garuḍa) in the middle
•    3, colors used for nyāsa in the practitioner’s body
•    4–10, visualization of Garuḍa with bhūṣaṇas, etc.
•    11–16ab, visualization of Viṣṇu and Śrī, also in the middle koṣṭha with Garuḍa
•    16cd–17, the eastern koṣṭha with Suparṇa
•    18–20, the southern koṣṭha with a 16 armed Garuḍa
•    21–22, the western koṣṭha with Vainateya
•    23–24, the northern koṣṭha with Tārkṣya
•    25–26, the southeast with Lakṣmī
•    27, the southwest with Kīrti
•    28, the northwest with Jayā
•    29, the northeast with Māyā
•    30, all four goddesses should be meditated on as equal to Lakṣmī
•    31–32, instructions for use
•    33–34, five primary yantras of Garuḍa introduced
•    35–42, vahniyantra
•    many details
•    40–41, wear the yantra for all-purpose protection
•    42, prose chunk of more details about the structure and use of the yantra
•    43–45, “anyayantra” for healing envenomation
•    four petaled lotus
•    46–48, (another yantra or another possible configuration?) used for viṣasaṃkramaṇa
•    śaṅkāviṣārteṣu
•    49–end, ārādhanavidhi
•    51, nyāsa of Viṣṇu on Garuḍa
•    53, yāga for ādhāraśakti
•    54, worship of various gods, followed by worship of the “pañcārṇamanu” (vipati).

•    Chapter 3     Uses of the Mantra
•    1–3, the viniyoga of the mantra (vipati-pañcārṇa and ancillary)
•    4–25ab, various diseases and conditions one can cure or effect based on what type of material is used for the homa fire.
•    25cd– 27, procedure for causing uccāṭana
•    28–29, procedure for maraṇa
•    30–31, procedure for jvarakaraṇa
•    32–36, procedure for mohana
•    37–40=end, procedure for rakṣā/all purpose yantradharaṇa

•    Chapter 4      Snakes and Poisons 101
•    1–2, homage and question
•    3–4ab, the five types of poison taught by Śambhu: sthāvara, jaṅgama, kṛtrima, grahaja, and śaṅkāviṣa.
•    4–5 list of chapter topics:
•    symptoms and stages of poison
•    vital points
•    messenger types
•    good and bad locales
•    the thirteen omens
•    one who knows these basics is a vidvān
•    6, the eight divine nāgas
•    7, the four types of earthy snakes
•    darvīkara, maṇḍalin, rājila, vaitaka
•    8–13, the behavior and appearance of snakes presided over by each of the eight nāgas
•    14–15, the four caste groups of the eight nāgarājas
•    16–18, other facts about snakes
•    19, where they live
•    20–22, the marks of ordinary snakes
•    23, the doṣas aggravated by each type
•    24, probably about the conditions under which a snake will bite
•    25–26ab, there are thirty-six types of cobras, sixteen maṇḍalin, thirteen rājila, eleven vaitaka
•    26cd–27ab, the months of gestation
•    27cd–28, baby snakes and their gender
•    29, the qualities of snakes born in certain months
•    30, fangs come in after they open their eyes and see the sun
•    31, the four main venomous fangs and their names
•    32, after a month they leave the mother, after six months they are a hand in length and slough their skin
•    33, animals that prey on snakes, lifespan of 100 years if not killed
•    34, two-hundred and forty non-venomous teeth, four venomous
•    35–39, astrological periods of the day and week assigned to each nāga and Gulika.
•    40, snakebite is fatal during these periods (just times of Gulika?)
•    41ab, the practitioner should not do rituals for people bitten during inauspicious times
•    41cd–43, the four types of bite
•    43ef–44, the eight reasons a snake will strike
•    45–52, the symptoms of bites by each type
•    45, bhīta
•    46, unmatta
•    47, kṣudārta
•    48, ākrānta
•    49, viṣadarpa
•    50, sthānārthin
•    51, vairin
•    52, kālacodita
•    53, symptoms of a saviṣa bite, otherwise nirviṣa
•    54–59, symptoms of a fatal bite (kāladaṣṭa)
•    60–61, divination for diagnosis of curability
•    62, kāladaṣṭa summary in Maṇḍākrānta meter
•    63–70, stages of envenomation ending in kāladaṣṭa (so a less severe bite can progress to the point of incurabilty, not necessarily incurable from the beginning)
•    71–73, inauspicious places to be bitten by a snake
•    74–75, vital spots on the body in which a snakebite is deadly/dangerous (nindita).
•    76, signs of an auspicious messenger
•    77–82, signs of an inauspicious messenger
•    83–84, general pointers about handling messengers
•    85–90, the nāgas paired and assigned to the directions
•    this seems to be used as a divination tool, the spot the messenger decides to sit on is used to determine things about the snake and the victim
•    91, words that come up in conversation with the messenger and their portent
•    92–93, reading the movements of the messenger as omens
•    94–100, more about reading between the lines of what the messenger says
•    101–107, more omens
•    108, bad asterism to be bitten under
•    109, bad days of the month
•    110 (end), bad times of day to be bitten

•    Chapter 5    Specific operations with the Vipati, Herbal remedies
•    1, opening praise
•    2, in praise of the mantra (?)
•    3–8, operations with the vipati mantra by varying order of the syllables
•    9, Kurukullā mantra
•    10, installation of the element maṇḍalas in the body of the practitioner
•    long prose mantra, mainly involving invocation of eight nāgas
•    mantra where syllables are assigned to each of the eight nāgas
•    11, sarpākārṣaṇamantra
•    12, sarpoccāṭaṇamantra
•    13, long mantra section, Vaiṣṇava, good for the four aims of man
•    14–15, paramārādhanakrama (long mantra section, ritual prescriptions, Vaiṣṇava elements)
•    includes mantras to use with the navakoṣṭha layout in chapter 2.
•    mantras in homage to each element (bhūta)
•    mantra in homage to each of the eight nāgas, also asks them to remove the poison
•    ends with a statement that it is to be done daily and makes the practitioner “śrīgaruḍavat” for all ritual actions, i.e. empowers him to act as Garuḍa.
•    16–24, back to the astrological topic of Gulika’s position in chapter 4.
•    25, prathamayantra, sarvarakṣākaram
•    26, dvitīyayantra, asādhyaviṣaharam
•    27, tṛtīyayantra, vikhaṇḍitakṣvelaharam
•    28, caturthayantra, saṃkrāmaṇakṛd
•    29, pañcamayantra, use not specified, but it is drawn on water and applied to patient by chanting
•    30, sarpoccāṭanayantra
•    kurukullā vidyā included
•    31, phaṇivadha
•    32, viṣasaṃhāra
•    kurukullā vidyā included
•    eṣa sudarśana gāruḍo viṣasaṃhāraḥ
•    33–35, prescription for gathering herbs (mantra)
•    34, another mantra, sounds Vedic
•    36, Aṅgadūṣaṇīvidyānyāsavidhi
•    37, for Rats (against rat-bite)
•    this tag “ākhūṇāṃ”, is doubtful, seems to be about snake poison
•    38, mantra for removing swelling
•    39–45, ākhuviṣanāśana mantras
•    46, vṛścikamantra
•    47, gardabhāśvādiviṣāpaha
•    48, Krimikīṭādiviṣāpaha
•    mantra begins with homage to Viṣṇu
•    49–50, sthāvaraviṣāpaha
•    51–52, yantrāntaravidhāna
•    Kurukullā vidyā used.
•    51, sarpoccāṭana yantra
•    52, stobhaka saṃhāraka yantra
•    53–55, descriptions of the element maṇḍalas
•    56, using the earth maṇḍala for stambhana
•    57, using the water maṇḍala (for nirviṣīkaraṇa)
•    58, using the fire maṇḍala for viṣa(stobha)
•    59, using the wind maṇḍala for saṃkrāmaṇa
•    60–61, using the space maṇḍala for sarpasaṃhāra
•    62, summing up uses of the element “yantras”
•    63ab, a mantra in code
•    63cd, uses of said mantra
•    64ab, a mantra in code
•    64cd, uses of said mantra
•    65ab, a mantra in code
•    65cd, uses of said mantra
•    66ab, a mantra in code
•    66cd, uses of said mantra
•    67ab, a mantra in code
•    67cd, uses of said mantra
•    68, summing up
•    69–80(end), Tārkṣyahasta

•    Chapter 6    Medicinal herbs, mantra/yantra, snake charming
•    1–2, seems to be about vital points, some doubts
•    3–7, seems to be about the phases of the moon in relation to efficacy of herbs, some doubts.
•    8–19, procedure for gathering herbs
•    10, nice verse about origin of medicinal herbs
•    11–18, mantras used for gathering herbs
•    20–36, nāgākṛṣṭi
•    21–31, yantra and mantras calling on nāgas and Garuḍa
•    34, having been drawn there, one can command them to take back their own poison and they will do it.
•    35, this vidyā is like an obedient wife when perfected
•    36–44, sarpoccāṭanamantra
•    involves the Vipati mantra
•    45–48, sarpasaṃhārayantra
•    uses Kurukullā vidyā
•    throw it in the snake’s hole
•    49–78(end), snake charming
•    mantras
•    59, smearing body and hands with medicinal herbs
•    61, a mudrā for paralysing the snake
•    63, making the hand into the shape of a cobra hood
•    68, the Kurukullā vidyā

•    Chapter 7    Mantras for the Eight Nāgas
•    1–4, Anantahṛdaya mantra, and statement that it is effective at removing the poison of one bitten by a snake of Ananta’s class.
•    5–7ab, Vāsukihṛdaya mantra
•    7cd–10, Takṣakahṛdaya mantra
•    11–13, Kārkoṭakahṛdaya mantra
•    14–16, Padmahṛdaya mantra
•    17–20ab, Mahāpadmahṛdaya mantra
•    20cd–24, Śaṅkhapālahṛdaya mantra
•    25–28ab, Gulikahṛdaya mantra
•    28cd–31(end), general procedures

•    Chapter 8    Darvīkara
•    1ab, introduction to the next three chapters stating the 4 types of snakes
•    1cd–3ab, symptoms of cobra bite
•    3cd–31, herbal medicines for cobra bite
•    thus, herbal remedies vary by species, while mantras do not, or vary according to the spiritual class of which nāga presides over the earthly snake.
•    several recipes are good for both plant and animal poisons
•    these are taken nasally and as ointments, where the next section is only as ointment
•    32–40, herbal medicinal ointments (añjana)
•    40–47, herbal medicinil ointments (lepana); what is the difference between añjana and lepana?
•    48–51, medicinal drinks
•    48–49, mentions wide efficacy, not just cobra bite
•    52–53, medicinal eatables
•    54–58, medicinal pills

•    Chapter 9    Maṇḍalin
•    1–3, symptoms of viper bite
•    4–49, herbal preparations for viper bite
•    5, a drink
•    6, an eatable
•    7, an ointment
•    16, a fumigant
•    50–65, mantras for viper bite
•    66–67, formula for constipation and retention of urine
•    68–86 (end), more herbal formulas for viper bite

•    Chapter 10    Rājila
•    1–2ab, symptoms of Rājila bite
•    odd in its brevity
•    2cd–13, herbal remedies for Rājila bite
•    14, mantra
•    16–45(end), herbal remedies

•    Chapter 11    Medicine for the Sixteen Rats
•    The divisions between sections is difficult to discern, so I have only made a tenuous first guess based on where the name is given.  Only 14 rats are named.  Some symptoms and herbal formulas are given for each.
•    1–6ab, Kulacandrasya
•    6cd–7, Bhayānakasya
•    8–9, Karaghnasya
•    10–11ab, Krūrasya
•    11cd–13, Ugrasya
•    14–15, Bhṛtakasya
•    16–18ab, Tīkṣṇasya
•    18cd–20ab, Meghanādasya
•    20cd–22ab, Kumudasya
•    22cd–26, Siṃhāsyasya
•    27–28ab, Sunāsasya
•    28cd–30, Sudantasya
•    31–32, Sulabhasya
•    33–34, Sugarbhasya
•    35–67, general purpose formulas for ākhuviṣa
•    68–76ab, mantra for ākhuviṣa called “Śṛṅkhala” (chain)
•    76cd–77ab, rodenticide formula
•    77cd–82, mantra
•    83–89 (end), herbal formulas

•    Chapter 12    Spiders, scorpions, gardabha, rabid dog, frogs, lizards, cats, etc.
•    3–5ab, mantra
•    Vipati mantra used
•    mantra seems to be called “Bhānu”
•    5cd–11ab, herbal formulas

•    11cd, scorpion sting medicine starts
•    12–15ab, mantra
•    14, mantra to Viṣṇu
•    15cd–17ab, herbs for scorpion sting

•    17cd start of gardabhāśvādi section, (or gardabha-śvābhyāṃ as in 21a?)
•    18–21ab, mantra
•    22cd–26ab, remedies for catbite and wildcat bite
•    26cd, jackel
•    27ab, centipede
•    27cd, frog
•    28, fish poison
•    28cd, mantra to Viṣṇu for “kṛmikīṭādika”
•    30, kīṭaviṣa
•    33–34, the classic rabid dog mantra
•    35–42, rabies formula
•    43–66 (end), plant poison antidotes
•    43–51, mantras, several parallels with Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya and others
•    52–66, herbal antidotes to plant poisons

•    Chapter 13    Abhiṣeka
•    2, it is secret
•    3, it removes all sin, is beneficent, allows one to control people
•    4, removes all disease, cures possion, poisons
•    5, good for infertility too
•    6, astrological timing
•    7, choosing an auspicious location
•    8–11, setting up a complete and ornamentd maṇḍapa
•    12, eight pots, rice, yantra
•    13, yāga, yantrārcana
•    14–15, more vidhis
•    16, involves recalling the Vainateya-manu
•    18–19, gems required
•    20–23, plant materials offered
•    24–25, music and singing offerings
•    26–27, visualization of Garuḍa
•    34, gāruḍa mantra recitation 1,008 times
•    35–43 (end), more specific instructions

(end of text; edition follows with a long passage attributed to Nārāyaṇīya 3, but differs from that)

Posted in Gāruḍam

One Response to Summary of the Kāśyapasaṃhitā/Garuḍapañcākṣarīkalpa

  1. Wavatar Srinath Iyengar says:

    I would like to know the source of these texts discussed. Are they available in PDF for download.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.